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The Correlation Between Diet and Periodontal Bone Loss

The Correlation Between Diet and Periodontal Bone Loss Oral health and systemic health are intimately intertwined, so it is no surprise that obesity may impact periodontal bone loss. Researchers sought to investigate the impact of certain elevated fatty acid levels

The Correlation Between Diet and Periodontal Bone Loss

Oral health and systemic health are intimately intertwined, so it is no surprise that obesity may affect periodontal bone loss. Researchers sought to investigate the impact of certain elevated fatty acid levels on alveolar bone loss in a Porphyromonas gingivalis–induced model of periodontal disease, with the results of the study “Diet-Induced Obesity and Its Differential Impact on Periodontal Bone Loss” published online by the Journal of Dental Research.  

The study was conducted by researchers from Columbia University in New York, and the Forsyth Institute in Boston, who worked together to better understand the cellular mechanisms in bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts in mice. Groups of mice were given three different diets: palmitic acid (PA)-enriched high-fat diet, oleic acid (OA)-enriched high-fat diet, and a normal caloric diet. Mice were infected orally with P. gingivalis to induce alveolar bone loss at week 10 of the 16-week study.  

At 16 weeks, the groups’ fat percentages were analyzed and their serum inflammation and bone metabolism markers were measured. The researchers found that the mice on the high-fat diets weighed significantly more than the group on the normal caloric diet. Furthermore, mice on the PA-enriched diet experienced a significantly greater incidence of alveolar bone loss. Bacterial challenges decreased bone metabolism markers in all groups. Calculated results led researchers to conclude that specific fatty acids (PA vs OA) rather than weight gain and obesity alone impact bone metabolism and therefore, influence alveolar bone loss.

Hygiene Connection E-Newsletter

November 2015

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